In this tutorial we will repartition a USB stick and install Fedora on it allowing it to be used:
- As encrypted storage with any modern Linux system
- As a bootable USB stick running Fedora and using an encrypted home partition
- To copy files to/from other computers, including those running non-Linux operating systems (this bit uses an unencrypted partition).
The basic idea is to split the disc into two partitions, Boot and Vault.
Boot is a FAT partition that interoperates well with non-Linux operating systems. The FAT partition will also contain, as files, the bootloader, read only compressed file system image and “overlay” image that allows us to amend the main filesystem. It is the compression that makes this scheme attractive. A very rich development workstation (including eclipse and lots of header packages) weighs in at less than 2GB. The other big advantage of basing things on the live images is that all the logic to stop temporary (and log) files writing out to the USB media is ready and working out of the box. This keeps down the wear on the media.
Note: The read-only compressed file system comes from the Fedora “Live” media. Thus the images easily available are the live CD and the live DVD published by the Fedora project. However it is possible to use the Fedora tools to custom roll your own live media.
The Vault is an encrypted home partition where the user files (including audio/video streams) can be stored. It is also automounted, subject to password, on any modern Linux system allowing it to be used for encrypted file exchange.
Recommended partition sizes
This is just a rough guide since its up to you to decide what you’ll be using the bootable stick for.
For a 4GB USB stick a 3GB FAT partition leaving a 1GB encrypted partition would be fairly flexible and allow big files to be transferred to a non-Linux operating system. Consider using a CD sized live image and a relatively small overlay partition (300MB or so).
For a 8GB USB stick, either a 4GB/4GB or a 5GB/3GB division would make sense. With a 5GB/3GB split then the DVD sized live image is possible together with a generous home area and the capacity to transfer large files.
For 16GB media I like to have a very big encrypted area so I can keep lots of audio/video material on the encrypted partition. For me a 6GB/10GB split gives me exactly what I want. A 2GB live image together with a generous overlay partition (1GB) so I can easilt install extra software whilst travelling if I need to.
I seldom use non-Linux operating systems these days so these recommendations assume I can use the encrypted partition for file transfer. If the primary thing you use the USB stick for is file transfer to non-Linux operating systems then perhaps you want to just pick a relatively small size for the encrypted partition (say 1GB) and give all the rest to the boot partition.
Putting it into practice
After inserting the USB media it is likely to be auto-mounted by the OS. Therefore the first thing we need to do it identify the media and unmount it. I recommend using the command line for this. Many GUI “eject” commands do more than just unmount the file system, they also do a USB shutdown that makes it impossible to use the media until you unplug and replug it (at which point it auto mounts again). Here we use mount to list the mounted devices and hunt for the device mounted on either
/run/media/<username>/ and then use the device name on the left to do the unmount. Remember the device name (below it is /dev/sdb1) since we’ll need that later.
[root@lobster ~]# mount proc on /proc type proc (rw,relatime) sysfs on /sys type sysfs (rw,relatime) ... /dev/sda1 on /boot type ext3 (rw,relatime,data=ordered) /dev/sdb1 on /run/media/drt/9A63-9772 type vfat (rw,nosuid,nodev,relatime,uid=500,gid=500,fmask=0022,dmask=0077, codepage=cp437,iocharset=ascii,shortname=mixed,showexec,utf8, errors=remount-ro,uhelper=udisks2) [root@lobster ~]# umount /dev/sdb1
Now we need to repartition the USB media to create seperate Boot and Vault partitions. THIS WILL ERASE EVERYTHING ON THE DISC. Here we use parted and the argument is the device name from above (/dev/sdb1) with the numeric part and the end shaved off (/dev/sdb).
Note: The following examples are taken from my own system where I’m setting up a 16GB USB stick with a 6GB/10GB split.
[root@lobster ~]# parted /dev/sdb GNU Parted 3.0 Using /dev/sdb Welcome to GNU Parted! Type 'help' to view a list of commands. (parted) p Model: SanDisk Cruzer Fit (scsi) Disk /dev/sdb: 16.0GB Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B Partition Table: msdos Disk Flags:
Number Start End Size Type File system Flags 1 16.4kB 16.0GB 16.0GB primary fat32 lba
Remove the original partition:
(parted) rm 1
Make a 6GB FAT partition to act as the boot partition, a 10GB encrypted partition and double check things by printing the partition table:
(parted) mkpart primary fat32 16.4kB 6.0GB Warning: The resulting partition is not properly aligned for best performance. Ignore/Cancel? i (parted) mkpart primary ext2 6.0GB 16GB (parted) print Model: SanDisk Cruzer Fit (scsi) Disk /dev/sdb: 16.0GB Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B Partition Table: msdos Disk Flags:
Number Start End Size Type File system Flags 1 16.4kB 6000MB 6000MB primary fat32 lba 2 6001MB 16.0GB 10.0GB primary
(parted) quit Information: You may need to update /etc/fstab.
Now is a good time to unplug the media, just to make sure that the kernel adopts the new partition table. This is paranoid but, hey, unplugging a USB stick isn’t so hard now is it?
Having done that, the automounter might end up decided to mount the old filesystem (not caring that half of it is now missing). However because the file system has changed size we must make a new one in order to be save.
Firstly we format the boot partition:
[root@lobster ~]# umount /dev/sdb1 [root@lobster ~]# mkfs.vfat -F 32 -n LIVE /dev/sdb1 mkfs.vfat 3.0.12 (29 Oct 2011) [root@lobster ~]#
Having done that we now need to create an encrypted ext4 partition ready to use as the home area (and for Linux to Linux file transfers):
[root@lobster ~]# cryptsetup --verify-passphrase luksFormat /dev/sdb2
WARNING! ======== This will overwrite data on /dev/sdb2 irrevocably.
Are you sure? (Type uppercase yes): YES Enter LUKS passphrase: Verify passphrase: [root@lobster ~]# cryptsetup luksOpen /dev/sdb2 tmp Enter passphrase for /dev/sdb2: [root@lobster ~]# mkfs.ext4 -L Vault -m 0 /dev/mapper/tmp mke2fs 1.42.3 (14-May-2012) Filesystem label=Vault OS type: Linux Block size=4096 (log=2) Fragment size=4096 (log=2) Stride=0 blocks, Stripe width=0 blocks 610800 inodes, 2442752 blocks 0 blocks (0.00%) reserved for the super user First data block=0 Maximum filesystem blocks=2503999488 75 block groups 32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group 8144 inodes per group Superblock backups stored on blocks: 32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912, 819200, 884736, 1605632
Allocating group tables: done Writing inode tables: done Creating journal (32768 blocks): done Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done
[root@lobster ~]# cryptsetup luksClose tmp [root@lobster ~]#
Again this is paranoia but just to make sure everything writes out before we unplug I like to run a:
[root@lobster ~]# sync
That’s it. The USB stick is ready. You can confirm this by hot-plugging one last time and you should be prompted to enter your password by the auto mounter.
We’re now half way there. The disk is all ready to run liveusb-creator to install the bootable operating system. After that there’s one last trick to get the live operating system to mount the encrypted home partition automatically and we’re all set.
I’ll tell you about all that in another post!